Effects of hazardous waste discharge from the activities of oil and gas companies in Nigeria

Document Type : Research paper


1 Institute of Geo-sciences, Rivers State University,Port Harcourt, Nigeria

2 Institute of Geo-science, Rivers State University,Port Harcourt, Nigeria

3 Department of Physics, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

4 Department of Agriculture, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria


The paper focused on the economic effects of hazardous waste due to oil and gas companies in Rivers State. It include direct, indirect, and induced impacts on jobs, labour income and value addition. Hazardous waste, could be a source of job creation and revenue generation, if properly managed. However, poor management of hazardous waste can cause great danger to environment, plants animals and human life. There are five major waste disposal dumpsites in Port Harcourt metropolis. The present study was restricted to three functioning dump sites at Rumuorlumeni, Igwuruta, and Eliozu. Data were collected from a wide range of subjects to elicit acceptable generalization, and then analyzed and tested in the laboratory. The results showed the p values of the dumpsite dot and parameters measured are significant at 5%, while the p-value of the locations considered is significant at 10%. Hence, there is a significant difference among dumpsite dot parameters measured and the three locations considered. The least squared difference comparison tests were done to identify the significant factors. It showed that the regions where hazardous wastes are dumped are barren due to the presence of heavy metal as they render the soil unfertile to permit crops and plants to germinate and affect on agriculture.

Graphical Abstract

Effects of hazardous waste discharge from the activities of oil and gas companies in Nigeria


  • Hazardous waste could be a source of job creation and revenue generation, if properly managed.
  • Dumping sites are barren due to the presence of heavy metal.
  • Significant difference seen among dumpsite dot parameters for three locations.
  • Administrative and Engineering controls is used to manage hazardous chemical discharge.


Main Subjects

Aderemi, A.O., Oriaku, A.V., Adewumi, G.A., Otitoloju, A.A., 2011. Assessment of groundwater contamination by leachate near a municipal solid waste landfill. Afr. J. Environ. Sci. Technol., 5(11), 933-940.
Amadi, A.N., Olasehinde, P.I., Okosun, E.A., Okoye, N.O., Okunlola, I.A., Alkali, Y.B., Al Naggar, Y.A., Naiem, E.A., Seif, A.I., Mona, M.H., 2013. Honey bees and their products as a bio-indicator of environmental pollution with heavy metals. Mellifera, 13(26), 10-20.
Amadi, A.N., Olasehinde, P.I., Okosun, E.A., Okoye, N.O., Okunlola, I.A., Alkali, Y.B., Dan-Hassan, M.A., 2012. A comparative study on the impact of Avu and Ihie dumpsites on soil quality in Southeastern Nigeria. Am. J. chem., 2(1), 17-23.
Berendse, F., van Ruijven, J., Jongejans, E., Keesstra, S., 2015. Loss of plant species diversity reduces soil erosion resistance. Ecosystems, 18(5), 881-888.
Brevik, E.C., Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Pereg, L., Quinton, J.N., Six, J., Van Oost, K., 2015. The interdisciplinary nature of Soil. Soil, 1(1), 117-129.
Chen, X.W., Tsz-Fung Wong, J., Mo, W.Y., Man, Y.B., Wang-Wai Ng, C., Wong, M.H., 2016. Ecological Performance of the Restored South East New Territories (SENT) Landfill in Hong Kong (2000–2012). Land. Degrad. Dev., 27(6), 1664-1676.
Chibuike, G.U., Obiora, S.C., 2014. Heavy Metal Polluted Soils: Effect on plants and bioremediation methods. Appl. Environ. Soil. Sci., 6, 1-12.
Decock, C., Lee, J., Necpalova, M., Pujol Pereira, E.I., Tendall, D.M., Six, J., 2015. Mitigating N2O emissions from soil: from patching leaks to transformative action. Soil, 1(2), 687-694.
Dong, J., Yang, Q.W., Sun, L.N., Zeng, Q., Liu, S.J., Pan, J., 2011. Assessing the concentration and potential dietary risk of heavy metals in vegetables at a Pb/Zn mine site. China. Environ. Earth. Sci., 64(5), 1317-1321.
Duru, R.U., Ikpeama, E.E., Ibekwe, J.A., 2019. Challenges and prospects of plastic waste management in Nigeria. Waste Dispos. Sustain. Energy., 1(2), 117-126. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42768-019-00010-2
Farooqi, Z.R., Iqbal, M.Z., Kabir, M., Shafiq, M., 2009. Toxic effects of lead and cadmium on germination and seedling growth of Albezia lebbeck (L.) Benth. Pak, J. Bot., 41(1), 27-33.
Gu, B., Zhu, W., Wang, H., Zhang, R., Liu, M., Chen, Y., Wu, Y., Yang, X., He, S., Cheng, R., Yang, J., Bi, J., 2014. Household hazardous waste quantification, characterization and management in China’s cities: A case study of Suzhou. Waste. Manage., 34(11), 2414-2423.
Iannelli, M.A., Pietrini, F., Fiore, L., Petrilli, L., Massacci, A., 2002. Antioxidant response to cadmium in Phragmites australis plants. Plant. Physiol. Biochem., 40(11), 977-982.
Ikem, A, Osibanjo, O, Sridhar, M.K., Sobande, A., 2002. Evaluation of groundwater quality characteristics near two waste sites in Ibadan and Lagos, Nigeria. Water. Air. Soil. Pollut., 140(1-4), 307-333.
Jolly, Y.N., Islam, A., Akbar, S., 2013. Transfer of metals from soil to vegetables and possible health risk assessment. Springer Plus, 2(1), 385-392.
Li, L., Wang, S., Lin, Y., Liu, W., Chi, T., 2015. A covering model application on Chinese industrial hazardous waste management based on integer program method. Ecol. Indicat., 51, 237-243.
Mahmoud, E., Abd El‐Kader, N., 2015. Heavy metal immobilization in contaminated soils using phosphogypsum and rice straw compost. Land. Degrad. Dev., 26(8), 819-824.
Nema, A.K., Gupta, S.K., 1999. Optimization of regional hazardous waste management systems: an improved formulation. Waste. Manage., 19(7-8), 441-451.
Roy, M., Mcdonald, L.M., 2015. Metal uptake in plants and health risk assessments in metal-contaminated smelter soils. Land. Degrad. Dev., 26(8), 785-792.
Sacristán, D., Peñarroya, B., Recatalá, L., 2015. Increasing the knowledge on the management of Cu-contaminated agricultural soils by cropping tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum L.). Land. Degrad. Dev., 26(6), 587-595,
Smith, P., Cotrufo, M.F., Rumpel, C., Paustian, K., Kuikman, P.J., Elliott, J.A., McDowell, R., Griffiths, R.I., Asakawa, S., Bustamante, M., House, J.I., Sobocká, J., Harper, R., Pan, G., West, P.C., Gerber, J.S., Clark, J.M., Adhya, T., Scholes, R.J., Scholes, M.C., 2015. Biogeochemical cycles and biodiversity as key drivers of ecosystem services provided by soils. Soil, 1(2), 665-685.
Skjemstad, J.O., Taylor, J.A., 1999. Does the Walkley‐Black method determine soil charcoal?. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal., 30(15-16), 2299-2310. https://doi.org/10.1080/00103629909370373
Wang, G., Qin, L., Li, G., Chen, L., 2009. Landfill site selection using spatial information technologies and AHP: a case study in Beijing, China. J. environ. Manage., 90(8), 2414-2421.
Wang, H.Q., Zhao, Q., Zeng, D.H., Hu, Y.L., Yu, Z.Y., 2015. Remediation of a magnesium-contaminated soil by chemical amendments and leaching. Land. Degrad. Dev., 26(6), 613-619.
Zhang, J., Hodgson, J., Erkut, E., 2000. Using GIS to assess the risks of hazardous materials transport in networks. Eur. J. Oper. Res., 121(2), 316-329.