Fundamental principles of optimal utilization of forests with consideration of global warming

Document Type : Research paper


Optimal Solutions in Cooperation with Linnaeus University, Hoppets Grand 6, SE 903 34 Umea, Sweden


The global climate can be effected via the management of the forests in all parts of the world. A general global mathematical optimization model including the central components in, and relevant links between, energy production, the fossil industry, forestry, and global warming, is defined. The average forest harvesting level is defined as proportional to the area under active forest management. If the area of active forest management increases, the area covered by forests in dynamic equilibria with net CO2 absorption close to zero, decreases.
The total economic result in the form of the present value over an infinite horizon is optimized, with consideration of global warming, subject to a constraint that makes sure that the total energy production is held constant. The Karush Kuhn Tucker conditions and the parameter assumptions define the equation system of the relevant optimum conditions. The results are derived in the general form via the differentiated first order optimum conditions.
The following result is proved: If it is considered more important to avoid global warming, then we should increase the use of forest energy inputs and decrease the use of fossil energy inputs in the combined heat and power industry.
The methodology made it possible to derive general conclusions from a model that is not dependent on particular numerical parameter values. The derived results contradict the common opinion that the best way to use the forest with consideration of global warming, is to maximize the stock level in the forest, and if possible, to completely stop harvesting.

Graphical Abstract

Fundamental principles of optimal utilization of forests with consideration of global warming


  • The global climate is found on the international agenda.
  • Forests are considered highly important to avoid global warming.
  • Optimal forest management based on climate, energy, the fossil industry, and CCS needs to be extended.


Main Subjects

Guerrero, J.E., Hansen, E., 2018. Cross-sector collaboration in the forest products industry: a review of the literature. Can. J. For. Res., 48(11), 1269-1278.
Gutiérrez, A.S., Eras, J.J.C., Hens, L., Vandecasteele, C., 2017. The biomass based electricity generation potential of the province of Cienfuegos, Cuba. Waste. Biomass. Valori., 8(6), 2075-2085.
Jacobsen, J.B., Jensen, F., Thorsen, B.J., 2018. Forest value and optimal rotations in continuous cover forestry. Environ. Res. Econ., 69(4), 713-732.
Kallio, A.M.I., Solberg, B., Käär, L., Päivinen, R., 2018. Economic impacts of setting reference levels for the forest carbon sinks in the EU on the European forest sector. Forest. Policy. Econ., 92, 193-201.
Lee, D. H., 2017. Econometric assessment of bioenergy development. Int. J. Hydrogen. Energ., 42(45), 27701-27717.
Lee, M., Den, W., 2016. Life cycle value analysis for sustainability evaluation of bioenergy products. J. Clean. Prod., 113, 541-547.
Lohmander, P., 2000. Optimal sequential forestry decisions under risk. Ann. Oper. Res., 95, 217-228.
Pang, X., Trubins, R., Lekavicius, V., Galinis, A., Mozgeris, G., Kulbokas, G., Mörtberg, U., 2019. Forest bioenergy feedstock in Lithuania–renewable energy goals and the use of forest resources. Energy. Strategy. Rev., 24, 244-253.
Paolucci, N., Bezzo, F., Tugnoli, A., 2016. A two-tier approach to the optimization of a biomass supply chain for pyrolysis processes. Biomass. Bioenerg., 84, 87-97.
Rautiainen, A., Lintunen, J., Uusivuori, J., 2018. Market-Level Implications of Regulating Forest Carbon Storage and Albedo for Climate Change Mitigation. Agri. Res. Econ. Rev., 47(2), 239-271.
Solberg, B., 1997. Forest biomass as carbon sinkā€economic value and forest management/policy implications. Crit. Rev. Environ. Sci. Tech., 27, 323-333.