The physical structure of pistachio (Pistacia atlantica Desf.) and economic value of its turpentine in the Zagros region, Western Iran

Document Type : Research paper


Department of Forest Science, Natural Resources and Watershed Management Organization, Kermanshah, Iran


The ecosystem value, wild pistachio species importance, and the product of raw turpentine in terms of creating employment, villager’s income and supplying raw materials for chemical, pharmaceutical, food industries and exporting it to European countries is a main interest to the government. The aim of this study was to investigate the ecosystem characteristics of pistachio species and the economic value of its gum in the direction of production rise in the Zagros in the Gilan-e Gharb forests that are located in Kermanshah province. The studied forest stands with 700, 2100, 700, and 1000 hectares area, respectively, are located in Kamreh Alirezavandi, Cheshmeh Sefid, Bapir, and Balaleh in Gilan-e Gharb in a mountainous and forested area. The desired area was determined using the available maps after field visiting. Then, for griding, the study area in 10,000-scale maps, was identified. Sampling by the regular random method was performed. In addition, the area of the sample plots is 4000 m2, have been surveyed. The results showed that the mean diameter at breast height in Kamreh, Bapir, Cheshmeh Sangi, and Balaleh areas equal 31.9, 35.5, 39.3, and 30.2 cm, respectively. Furthermore, the mean number of exploitable pistachio trees in the Kamareh, Bapir, Cheshmeh Sefid, and Balaleh areas is 30.15, 58.3, 44.45, and 32.25, respectively. The profit amount for the wild pistachio gum exploitation includes 821700000, 1623000000, 1740500000, and 2116000000 Rials in the Kamreh, Bapir, Cheshmeh Sefid, and Balaleh, respectively. Protecting valuable wild pistachio trees in the Gilan-e Gharb region's forest ecosystem and properly extracting their sap is a step towards empowering local communities and enhancing production.

Graphical Abstract

The physical structure of pistachio (Pistacia atlantica Desf.) and economic value of its turpentine in the Zagros region, Western Iran


  • The exploitation of forests and pastures should be done in the form of careful, scientific and principled planning so as not to damage forest and rangeland species.
  • The ecosystem value of wild pistachio species produced by raw turpentine in terms of creating employment and income of villagers and providing materials for chemical, pharmaceutical and food industries of the country is of interest to the government.


Main Subjects

Bordbar, K., Hamzehpour, M., Joukar, L., Rayatinejad, A., 2006. Effect of conventional terbinthine exploitation on bark redress mechanism of wild pistachio (Pistacia atlantica subsp. mutica). Iran. J. For. Pop. Res., 14(2), 134-127. [In Persian]
Garavand, Y., SM, H., Ahmadi, K., Ghomi Avili, A., Ahadi, A., 2016. Investigation on Structure of pistachio trees stands in two closed and grazed areas (Baghe Shadi protected area Yazd). Nat. Ecosyst. Iran, 7(2), 89-101. [In Persian]
Ghahari, G., Gandomkar, A., Najafpour, B., Nejabat, M., 2016. Investigating Climatic Factors Affecting the Distribution of Pistachio Forests in Mond Basin. Geogr. Environ. Plan., 27(3), 131-162. [In Persian]
Hamzehpour, M., Bordbar, S.K., Juokar, L., Abbasi, A.R., 2006. The potential of rehabilitation of wild pistacio forests through straight seed sowing and seedling planting. Iran. J. For. Pop. Res., 14(3), 207-220. [In Persian]
Iranmanesh, Y., Jahanbazi, H., Talebi, M., Mahinpour, H., 2019. Effect of morphological variables, altitude and tree gender on gum production of Pistacia atlantica in Chaharmahal & Bakhtiari Province forests. J. For. Res. Develop., 5(2), 195-207. [In Persian]
CrossRef    Google Scholar    full-text PDF       
Jahanbazi, H., Talebi, M., 2006. Seed production potential of pistachio forests of Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari province and its economical effects on dwellers welfare. Iran. J. For. Pop. Res., 14(2), 167-159. [In Persian]
CrossRef    Google Scholar    full-text PDF      
Mansoori, M., Badehyan, Z., 2014. Economic evaluation of turpentine exploitation in forests of Khoramabad township. J. For. Sustain. Develop., 1(3), 231-240. [In Persian]
CrossRef    Google Scholar    full-text PDF       
Montazeri, M., Ghahari, G., Negahdarsaber, M.R., 2014. Identifying vegetative climate zones in Fars Province with emphasis on the spread of pistachio forests. J. Appl. Climatol., 1(1), 73-86. [In Persian]
Negahdar-Saber, M.R., Fattahi, M., Pakparvar, M., Joukar, L., 2009. Statistical study of physiographic conditions in wild pistachio habitats using GIS in Fars province. Iran. J. For. Pop. Res., 17(4), 512-522. [In Persian]
Ojeda-Amador, R.M., Fregapane, G., Salvador, M.D., 2018. Composition and properties of virgin pistachio oils and their by-products from different cultivars. Food Chem., 240, 123-130.
CrossRef    Google Scholar    full-text PDF    Mendeley    PubMed   
Pour, M.J., Rasouli, M., Mariv, H.S., Hemat, M.A., Shahmoradi, M., 2013. Wild pistachio tree (Pistacia mutica) in the Qalajeh forest region of western Iran. J. For. Res., 24(3), 611-614.
Rad, M.H., Fattahi, M., 2005. Investigation on some quantitative and qualitative characteristics of different types of Pistachia Atlantica at Yazd province. Iran. J. For. Pop. Res., 13(2), 203-225. [In Persian]
CrossRef    Google Scholar    full-text PDF