Evaluation and zoning environmental water security in rural districts of Kermanshah (Iran)

Document Type : Research paper


1 Department of Agricultural Development, Agriculture College, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran

2 Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, Agriculture College, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran

3 Department of Water Resources Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran

4 Agricultural Extension, Ministry of Agriculture, Kermanshah, Iran


Water can be considered as one of the most critical environmental factors that, besides intrinsic value, has various environmental impacts. This study aimed at evaluating environmental water security in rural districts of Kermanshah city.  In order to assess environmental water security, water quantity, water quality and emission of pollutants were considered. This study was conducted in descriptive and survey method in 2017. The regional water organization database was used to evaluate the dimensions of water quantity and available water resources. Furthermore, the statistical population for evaluating the emission of pollutants was the farmers of the rural districts of Kermanshah, including 34723 people according to the census of 2016. The Morgan table was used to determine the sample size. The statistical population of the research was Farmers in 12 rural districts in Kermanshah city. The software used for data analysis and zonation of the areas was Arc GIS 10.3.1 and SPSS. According to the results, the Miandarband, Sarfirozabad, Jalalvand, Sanjabi and Haftashian districts were very secure compared to other rural districts. Parts of Chaqanarges, Bilavar and Dorudfaraman are in a critical condition regarding environmental water security, which necessitates special attention from the authorities.

Graphical Abstract

Evaluation and zoning environmental water security in rural districts of Kermanshah (Iran)


  • Investigation of water quantity status in rural districts environment of Kermanshah city.
  • Investigation of water quality status in rural districts environment of Kermanshah city.
  • Creating a basis for balancing the allocation of water between different uses especially the environment.


Main Subjects

Akhavan Kazemi, M., Veici, S., 2016. Analysis of the Impacts of Climate Change and its Challenges and Opportunities on Regional Crisis. Hum. Geogr. Res., 48(1), 69-87. [In Persian]
Alzoubi, Y.I., Gill, A.Q., Al-Ani, A., 2016. Empirical studies of geographically distributed agile development communication challenges: A systematic review. Inform. Manag., 53(1), 22-37.
Amanpur, S., Alizadeh, H., Damanbagh, S., 2014. Evaluate the development of the city of Kermanshah from the perspective of allocating utilities indices. 6(23), 105-126. [In Persian]
Bard, S.K., Barry, P.J., 2000. Developing a scale for assessing risk attitudes of agricultural decision makers. Int. Food Agribus. Manag. Rev., 3(1), 9-25.
CrossRef    Google Scholar    full-text PDF    Mendeley       
CrossRef    Google Scholar    full-text PDF    Mendeley       
Gleick, P.H., 1989. The implications of global climatic changes for international security. Clim. Change, 15(1), 309-325.
CrossRef    Google Scholar    full-text PDF    Mendeley       
Hooley, G.J., Lynch, J.E., Shepherd, J., 1990. The marketing concept: putting the theory into practice. Eur. J. Market., 24(9), 7-24.
Liang, P., Liming, D., Guijie, Y., 2010. Ecological security assessment of Beijing based on PSR model. Proc. Environ. Sci., 2, 832-841.
Mohammadi, F., 2017. The educational and extensional barriers to the use of vermicompost fertilizer by farmer (Case Study: Asadabad City). Environ. Educ. Sustain. Develop., 6(1), 19-27. [In Persian]
Mohammadi Ostadkelayeh, A., Motiee Langerudi, S.H., Rezvani, M.R., Ghadiri Masoom, M., 2016. An explanation of resettlement in rural sustainable development using grounded theory approach (case study: resettlement in flooded villages in Golestan province). J. Res. Rural Plan., 5(1), 181-195.
Pahl-Wostl, C., Palmer, M., Richards, K., 2013. Enhancing water security for the benefits of humans and nature-the role of governance. Curr. Opin. Environ. Sustain., 5(6), 676-684.
Shamsoddini, M., Shahraki, J., 2013. Applying a Tax Model for Reduction of Chemical Pesticides Pollution in Agricultural Areas of Selected Countries. Agric. Econ. Res., 5(2), 41-73. [In Persian]
Sharma, N., Singhvi, R., 2017. Effects of chemical fertilizers and pesticides on human health and environment: a review. Int. J. Agric. Environ. Biotech., 10(6), 675-680.
Wang, X., Ping, W., Ebadi, A.G., Majedi, S., Hossaini, Z., Toughani, M., 2021. Hydroxymethylation of unsaturated hydrocarbons with CO2: An overview. J. CO2 Util., 50, 101592.
Wang, Y., Zhu, Y., Hu, Y., Zeng, G., Zhang, Y., Zhang, C., Feng, C., 2018. How to construct DNA hydrogels for environmental applications: advanced water treatment and environmental analysis. Small, 14(17), 1703305.
CrossRef    Google Scholar    full-text PDF    Mendeley    PubMed   
Wilson, E.J., 2008. Hard power, soft power, smart power. Ann. Am. Acad. Politic. Soc. Sci., 616(1), 110-124.
Xu, W., Guo, D., Ebadi, A.G., Toughani, M., Vessally, E., 2021. Transition-metal catalyzed carboxylation of organoboron compounds with CO2. J. CO2 Util., 45, 101403.
Yang, M., Efehi, N., Jin, Y., Zhang, Q., Ebadi, A.G., Toughani, M., 2020. Hot Water Extraction of Crude Polysaccharide from Codonopsis pilosula and Determination of the Rheological Properties. Rev. Chim., 71(5), 441-449.
Zakeri, M.A., Mirnia, S.K., Moradi, H., 2022. Assessment of water security in the large watersheds of Iran. Environ. Sci. Policy, 127, 31-37.